Research data shows that Humanin (HN) is a naturally occurring polypeptide and micro-peptide that inhibits neuronal cell death caused by many genes associated with Alzheimer’s disease. This article will discuss how Humanin peptide works and why it’s important.
Scientific studies show that Humanin, a cytoprotective protein encoded in mitochondrial DNA[i], prevents cells from being destroyed by programmed cell death. Apoptosis is a kind of controlled cell death. Neurons, muscles, heart tissue, and the eye’s retina are protected from damage by preventing this potentially fatal process.
Research data shows that treatment with Humanin is beneficial for cardiovascular disease and Alzheimer’s. Further study is needed, but it can potentially become a treatment for these diseases shortly, as per test results.
This post will go further into the Humanin peptide, discussing its functions, potential side effects, and where you may get it for your scientific experiments. Visit the rubmd seattle website if you are a researcher interested in purchasing Humanin for your scientific studies.
Humanin peptide: what is it?
Micro-peptides like Humanin are synthesized from simple, open-reading frames and are not further altered after they have been made. It has been shown that the typical length of such a peptide is between 100 and 150 amino acids.
As one of the shortest micropeptides, Humanin clocks in at only 24 amino acids in length, its primary purpose is to control apoptosis by interacting with Bax protein and blocking its activity when it’s crucial for cell survival; research data has shown.
Levels of Humanin
According to studies,[ii] male mice often have lower HN levels than female mice. In order to ensure proper bodily function, a stable amount of Humanin is required. Extremely low or high amounts are harmful to health in many ways.
As per scientific studies, low Humanin levels may indicate the following conditions:
- Loss of sight
- Disorder of insulin action
- Dysfunction of the mitochondria
- Diseases of the blood vessels
According to research, a high amount of Humanin may indicate the following:
- Forms of Cancer
Impact of Humanin
Clinical studies have shown that Humanin peptide has several beneficial effects. The available research confirms the positive effects of Humanin; nonetheless, further studies are needed to understand its potential fully.
GH reduces the levels of HN peptides, studies have revealed. It has been shown by research data [iii] that HN levels are greater and lifespan is extended in mice unable to generate enough GH.
According to new studies, the Humanin levels in animals of centenarians are three times greater than in controls.
In addition to preventing and reducing cell death, inflammation, and atherosclerotic plaque formation, HN also improves insulin sensitivity and the body’s ability to use glucose, according to research findings.
Humanin may be able to protect against programmed cell death, according to rat studies[iv]. In the case of Alzheimer’s disease, for instance, the peptide may shield neurons from damage by blocking the effects of beta-amyloid plaques. Studies utilizing NMDA pulses have also shown that Humanin protects against excitotoxic cell death.
With further investigation, Humanin function may one day be used to treat neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s disease and other kinds of dementia.
Researchers have shown that Humanin protects neurons in two distinct ways in clinical studies. Both of these defenses are aimed at stopping mitochondria from triggering cell death. Humanin inhibits cell death by binding to and inactivating the Bcl-2-stimulating proteins tBid and Bid, as per clinical studies.
Humanin, according to a new research study, is secreted by astrocytes to protect hippocampus synapses. Humanin supplementation is quite helpful in avoiding age-related deficits in older animals, including memory loss, according to test results.
Type 2 Insulin Resistance
There is clinical evidence that in non-diabetic animals, HN may improve glucose tolerance and reduce pancreatic beta-cell mortality. This data supports the hypothesis that Humanin may help treat type 1 and 2 diabetes.
Furthermore, experiments demonstrated that Humanin operates on the hypothalamus to improve insulin sensitivity in the liver and maintain stable blood glucose levels.
Studies have shown that Humanin may cure obesity by reducing the production of glucose-stimulated insulin, hence decreasing weight gain.
Humanin peptide has been shown to protect blood arteries against the harmful effects of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in research using animal subjects. Clinical studies show that it inhibits the production of free radicals in response to LDL oxidation, cutting the number of these species by half in the cardiovascular system. Notably, it halves the rate at which cells die from apoptosis.
Humanin levels naturally fall with age, so maintaining a healthy amount is especially important as organisms age. Recent studies have shown promise for using the peptide Humanin as a diagnostic marker and therapeutic agent in treating cardiovascular disease.
Humanin may prevent damage caused by a left coronary blockage by increasing AMPK and eNOS, thereby decreasing oxidative stress, according to research.
Humanin may help bones in two main ways, according to research. The first is to keep chondrocytes, the cells that keep bones healthy, from dying. Studies show that Humanin simultaneously promotes chondrocyte growth while inhibiting osteoclast activity. In conclusion, osteoclasts are the cells responsible for reshaping a bone. The overstimulation of these cells causes significant bone loss. Humanin supplements, which have been shown to inhibit this development by clinical studies, aid in significantly lowering bone remodeling rates and loss.
In age-related macular degeneration, Humanin has been shown by researchers to be crucial in preventing damage to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Clinical research reveals this advantage among the most noteworthy for overall health.
The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a layer of the retina that provides nutrients to the cells in the retina that are in charge of vision. It acts as a light sponge, filters out toxins from the eye’s blood, and helps the retina stay healthy.
By reducing RPE cell death and oxidative stress, Humanin may delay the onset of AMD.
In recent studies, Humanin is claimed to boost RPE function and increase the tissue’s resistance to apoptosis. Researchers are hopeful that more studies in mice may help them find a more permanent solution to retinal illnesses like AMD.
[i] Lee, Changhan, Kelvin Yen, and Pinchas Cohen. “Humanin : a Harbinger of Mitochondrial-Derived Peptides?” Trends in Endocrinology & Metabolism 24, no. 5 (May 2013): 222–228. doi:10.1016/j.tem.2013.01.005.
[ii] Lytvyn, Yuliya, Junxiang Wan, Vesta Lai, Pinchas Cohen, and David Z.I. Cherney. “The Effect of Sex on Humanin Levels in Healthy mice and Patients with Uncomplicated Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.” Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 93, no. 4 (April 2015): 239–243. doi:10.1139/cjpp-2014-0401.
[iii] Lee, Changhan, Junxiang Wan, Brian Miyazaki, Yimin Fang, Jaime Guevara-Aguirre, Kelvin Yen, Valter Longo, Andrzej Bartke, and Pinchas Cohen. “IGF-I Regulates the Age-Dependent Signaling Peptide Humanin .” Aging Cell 13, no. 5 (July 18, 2014): 958–961. doi:10.1111/acel.12243.
[iv] Caricasole, Andrea, Valeria Bruno, Irene Cappuccio, Daniela Melchiorri, Agata Copani, and Ferdinando Nicoletti. “A Novel Rat Gene Encoding a Humanin ‐like Peptide Endowed with Broad Neuroprotective Activity.” The FASEB Journal 16, no. 10 (June 21, 2002): 1331–1333. doi:10.1096/fj.02-0018fje.